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美国驻芬兰大使馆

业主
美国驻芬兰大使馆
位置
芬兰赫尔辛基
规模
1.2公顷
Team
MRY建筑师事务所
专业领域
景观

芬兰的自然景观在过去数百年来都是该国艺术和文化作品的灵感泉源,地位格外重要;不但如此,那里的自然景观也具有实用价值,因为林业和木制品工业一只以来对芬兰的经济都有着重大贡献。美国驻芬兰大使馆选址芬兰湾旁,占据赫尔辛基其中一个最优越的位置。因应如此特别的基地条件和瞩目的场地,Sasaki所制定的景观设计方案表达了对土地的深切欣赏和尊重。要在地块上融入新功能内容,最重要的一环是回应地形条件:基地位于一片山坡上,贯通基地的行人步道因而变得起伏有致,行人可在沿途各个抬升平台上欣赏到令人喜出望外的壮丽海景;新旧花园空间与现有的主办公楼、新建的新翼楼和翻新后的副楼 环环相扣;基地现场的停车区有隐藏式的设计,无损基地俯瞰芬兰湾景色的优势。

受基地面积所限,车行和人行道路的坡度均达到一般北方地区标准的极限。因此,设计团队以这些基地状况为基础,设计了两个各有特色的区域,而两者也各有不同朝向。

新入口广场位于基地西侧,并沿着东西向轴线布置,该轴线一直延伸到后方的平台位置。用花岗岩铺装的路面穿过建筑物的大厅,令线条效果一致、鲜明,也强调室内、室外之间的连接。花岗岩是赫尔辛基许多城市空间的设计特征,设计团队选用花岗岩来配搭新设施的建筑材料,以加强建筑和景观之间的关系。

基地西侧拥有很好的日照条件,尽管春秋两季正午和午后的太阳角度较低,基地也能享受充足日照。茂密的白桦树树林为新建筑提供了独特美景。当冬去春来,积雪在草地上融化,露出五颜六色的早春花蕾;夏天时分,翠绿的原生蕨类植物和盛开的花朵覆盖大地,为白桦树丛添上灿烂的色彩。西边蜿蜒曲折的路径从现有的主办公楼伸展开来,穿过白桦树丛,到达新建的新翼楼和翻新后的副楼,人们可在沿途的座位区歇息或欣赏风景;另一条同样从主办公楼出发的路径,在新翼楼西北角附近往下坡发展,那里种满的西伯利亚落叶松成为了路堤上丰富的景致,而且沿新翼楼的外立面一直排列到入口广场和大厅。

基地东侧的区域在春秋两季只能接收有限度的晨光,同时受到从海湾吹来的盛行风影响,因此这里比较适合发展私人用途空间,而在夏天气候适合的日子,人们也可利用这里的花园和剧场式石凳来举办户外活动,同时欣赏海天一色的美景。花团锦簇、绿草如茵的自然景观,让基地变得生气盎然。随着基地往上坡发展,芬兰原生的小型开花植物与多种多样的灌木和植被相互交织。弯弯曲曲的车道往上坡延伸,到达新建筑北端,并且因应基地坡度而高架于周边的景观之上,一棵棵白桦树将这条斜坡连成一体,并构成了个各有特色的花园空间:主办公楼东侧的旧有花园空间以及新建的剧场式座席区,此座席区是新翼楼的观景点和平台。观景点和剧场式座席区以白桦树为背景幕,又种满鲜艳夺目、花卉盛开的灌木丛和地被植物,人们可在一棵高大的英国栎树下,观看一望无际的芬兰湾景色。这些漂亮景观也能从现有的主办公楼、新翼楼和翻新后的副楼俯瞰得到。

The limited size of the site required slopes on drives and walks to push to the limits of standards normally used in northern climates. The design team’s response creates two distinct zones with different character and orientations.

To the west, a new Arrival Plaza is oriented on an east-west axis extending to a terrace beyond with views to the Gulf. The uninterrupted pattern of granite paving extending through the building lobby reinforces this prominent alignment and emphasizes a relationship between inside and outside. Granite materials, which characterize the design of many urban spaces in Helsinki, were selected to match materials used on the new facility to strengthen the bond between architecture and landscape.

Very favorable solar orientation along the west side of the site allows even the low midday and afternoon sun to reach the site in spring and fall. A dense Silver Birch grove frames views to the new building. Masses of early-spring flowering bulbs provide a colorful expression of spring just after the snow melts from the turf. In summer, lush native ferns and flowering groundcovers blanket the Silver Birch groves. A meandering path with places to sit leads from the existing Chancery along the western perimeter through the Silver Birch grove to the new COA and renovated Annex. A second path from the existing Chancery descends steeply near the northwest corner of the new COA, where a cluster of Siberian Larch trees anchor and colonize the embankment, and follows the new COA façade to terminate at the Arrival Plaza and Lobby.

The eastern zone has limited morning sun in spring and fall and is affected by prevailing winds blowing from the Gulf. This area was best suited to more private uses and outdoor events in summer when the garden spaces and stone amphitheater seating overlooking the water are comfortably usable. Lawn and masses of colorful bulbs enhance views into the site, and ss the site ascends, small, native Finnish flowering trees are introduced among diverse shrubs and groundcovers. The driveway winds uphill to the north end of the new building, and as a consequence of required grading, becomes elevated from the surrounding landscape. An informal grove of Silver Birch trees is utilized to integrate this slope and create two distinctive garden spaces: the existing garden space east of the Chancery and the new amphitheater, overlook and terrace at the new COA. The overlook and amphitheater use the Silver Birch grove as a backdrop and are oriented for views under a large solitary English Oak over masses of flowering shrubs and groundcovers to the Gulf of Finland. This area of the site has also been designed for views from above from the existing Chancery, new COA and renovated Annex buildings.

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